Mario Arturo Acosta Chaparro, a retired general. Photo: Octavio Gomez
MEXICO CITY (approved). - The retired General Mario Arturo Acosta Chaparro was with many outstanding justice.
He was charged with the forced disappearance of 143 people in the dirty war in Guerrero during the administrations of Luis Echeverria and Jose Lopez Portillo ( Process 1282 and 1356).
In addition to torture, he was accused of involvement in "death flights", which consisted of throwing into the sea from aircraft peasants accused of being part of the guerrillas.
The Special Prosecutor for Social and Political Movements of the Past (FEMOSPP) dissolved at the end of Vicente Fox and then headed by Ignacio Carrillo Prieto, has opened a preliminary investigation against the officer for his alleged role in the disappearances, but declined in favor of military courts. The military court acquitted the accused.
In the report of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) on at least 482 cases of disappeared during the dirty war , most of Guerrero, appeared 50 people who worked with Acosta Chaparro as a director of all state police forces.
The overall traded yet officially in the administration of Carlos Salinas, when it was integrated into the short-lived National Security Coordination, led by the late Arsenio Farell Cubillas.
During the administration of Ernesto Zedillo was linked to the killing of 17 peasants, 28 June 1995, at the ford of Aguas Blancas, Guerrero, where decades ago the government was police chief Ruben Figueroa Figueroa, who was kidnapped by guerrillas Lucio Cabañas in 1974.
Then-Secretary of Legal Affairs of the PRD and later attorney general of Mexico City, Samuel del Villar, demanded the return of Brigadier General based on a video with statements by Virgilia Galeana Garcia, who notes the presence of Acosta Chaparro on the place of slaughter, and who said to have been "camouflaged" with a suit of the State Judicial Police. The complaint was not successful.
In 1990, Brigadier General recorded his knowledge of the guerrillas in the study entitled subversive movement in Mexico , over 300 pages, lists, graphs and succinct analysis of the Mexican guerrillas, covering more than three decades.
According to his writing, until 1981 the security forces and research, responsible for maintaining control over the factors rebels in the country, played an effective neutralization work, since practically exterminated pockets of insurrection which represented a number of problems between 1973 and 1977.
As a brigadier general in 1995 gave its files to the staff of the Ministry of National Defense (SEDENA), which then published in a volume of 300 pages manual setting on the Zapatista uprising ( Process 978).
The final part of 30 pages, as an epilogue, was dedicated to the EZLN and criticized the failure of the intelligence services have not identified the training exercises of the Zapatistas.
The writer Ricardo Garibay, in his book fascinating and terrible Acapulco , described Acosta Chaparro:
"Lieutenant Colonel does not drink alcohol during pregnancy, her people say it is very hard but righteous, know the Bible on criminals, drug mafias and activists of all denominations, will go to their hands and no one else, which means it relies only in his memory and skill, and is able to get the thread in a few minutes to a criminal enigmas, or to see secret connections between isolated 20 events a tangle guerrilla ... "
Since 1984 his name began to be linked to drug trafficking, first in documents of the DEA and the FBI ( Process 483), and then by the U.S. Department of Justice, when he pointed out as the protector of the alleged drug trafficking and money laundering for accounts of Mario Ruiz Massieu at Texas Comerce Bank.
Acosta Chaparro's career as a military expert on counter-insurgency was interrupted when he was imprisoned in 2000 on charges of drug trafficking.
On 30 August of that year he was arrested with Gen. Francisco Quiros Hermosillo and tried by a court-martial on charges of having links to drug trafficking.
Both had participated in the White Brigade guerrilla in the early seventies.Previously they had been in the Parachute School and later in the Second Section of the Presidential.
Later, were commissioned in the Federal Security Directorate, the secret police spying charge, repression and torture of persons considered subversive.
In 1974, as members of a special grouping created to solve the kidnapping of then Senator Ruben Figueroa, were sent to the state of Guerrero.
By then, had been 10 years of working closely in military intelligence. Later Acosta Chaparro remained as chief of police of Governor Ruben Figueroa Jr. was, they said "Figueroa Figueroa's gun."
It was in the twilight of President Ernesto Zedillo, and when the great friend of both, General Enrique Cervantes Aguirre, was defense secretary, were accused of having ties to the Juarez cartel.
The Military Attorney's Office stopped a result of the investigation initiated in 1988 by the Attorney-General's Office PGR/056/96- preliminary investigation, the breakdown was referred to the Military Prosecutor in July 1999.
Both Quiros Hermosillo and Acosta Chaparro SC/003/99/E appeared in the investigation of the Office of Military Justice alleged to have provided protection to the Juarez cartel, then headed by Amado Carillo Fuentes, the Lord of Heaven .
The breakdown turned over to the Office of Military Justice, in addition to the signs that involved with drug trafficking, extrajudicial killings blamed them dating from when he led police in Guerrero, with Figueroa Figueroa, where he acted against what left of the guerrillas, and their passage through the White Brigade.
Testimonials from soldiers and civilians to the Attorney General of Military Justice, the file SC/034/2000/IV/IE-Bis integrated confirmed the way in the seventies the guerrillas or their sympathizers, captured by soldiers, were shot and thrown the sea from an airplane, some of them still alive.
The bodies were placed in canvas bags, filled with stones, and placed on an aircraft type Arava, registration 2005, the then Squadron 301.
The file was opened to them by the aggravated murder of 143 people by the armed campaigns in Guerrero, where Acosta Chaparro was attached to the Parachute Rifle Brigade and subsequently commissioned in the direction of the state police.
It was common knowledge that in the wells of Copacabana or below the tourist development of Punta Diamante, which was built on the fractionation Copacabana in Acapulco, there were bodies of people who were never identified and whose deaths were attributed to the employees of Acosta Chaparro .
"Everybody knew who did that were legal, under the command of Mario Arturo Acosta Chaparro, as (Herminio Diaz) Tumalán and another called Mario Hernandez, nicknamed Skunk "recalled then Zechariah Salvador Flores, leader of the PRD in his youth was surfing fan and had the opportunity to see human remains in that area.
To substantiate charges against military events during the dirty war , particularly in the period in which Acosta Chaparro was responsible for the police forces in Guerrero, when he was governor Ruben Figueroa Figueroa (1975-1981) - military research resorted to at least ten soldiers who said they witnessed the killings allegedly committed by them.
The protected witness, Tarin Gustavo Chavez, who collaborated with exmilitar Acosta Guerrero, Veracruz and then, he said: that Quiros and Acosta chose to detainees who were seated in a chair, where they were told they were going to get the "snapshot of memory. " And they were shot in the neck with a .380 caliber pistol, which Quiros named "the avenging sword." That the bodies were put into canvas bags and placed in the Arava, sometimes 12, 14 or 16 bodies, and were thrown overboard.
The reporting directly accused Acosta Chaparro: "There will be personally executed some 200 people, of course, with the permission of General Quiros Hermosillo."
For the families of missing the general is the devil.
The founder of the Eureka Committee Prodefensa of Prisoners, Disappeared and Political Exiles in Mexico, Rosario Ibarra de Piedra, as indicated by the fury with which tortured.
"They know exactly where they are missing, they have to respond to the nation.Again the accusing finger pointed to and we want all the people do with us, "thenProcess .
Information published in the weekly corroborated not only the responsibility of the military alleged disappearances during the time he participated in the White Brigade, commissioned by the Mexican Army, but those recorded during the government of Ruben Figueroa Figueroa.
After the trial, both officers were sentenced to 30 years in prison after an appeal and obtained a reduction from 15 years to his sentence. Quiros Hermosillo died in November 2006 ended without criminal process, so it was not technically sign the indictment against him.
Acosta Chaparro purged just under half the sentence. Six years and 10 months after his imprisonment, June 29, 2007, he left his cell at the Military Camp No. 1 thanks to a definitive under which granted the federal courts.
The Fifth Collegiate Criminal Court of the First Circuit determined that neither the Attorney General, by then General Rafael Macedo de la Concha, or the Office of Military Justice, proved the crime against public health "in the form of collaboration in any way to building to enable the narcotics (cocaine and marijuana). " Neither the crimes of bribery and conspiracy.
He was always linked to the darkest events in Mexico. For example, one month after the murder of journalist Manuel Buendia, the Attorney General of the Federal District (PGJDF) revealed that it was investigating staff who worked under the orders of Acosta Chaparro.
Later, between the lines of investigation opened by the PGJDF in the murder of human rights defender Digna Ochoa, one of the research pointed to the general then detained in Military Camp No. 1 for his alleged links to the cartel Juarez.
The PGJDF sought to establish whether from the military prison Acosta Chaparro ordered the murder to "damage the image" of Attorney General Rafael Macedo de la Concha.
Acosta Chaparro's proximity to the current Secretary of Defense, Guillermo Galván Galván, who was a fellow at the Military Academy, involved his public vindication and recovery of their degree.
On April 23, 2008, in Military Camp No. 1, where he spent nearly seven years in prison, the Department of Defense held a private ceremony to praise the work of 23 officers and condecorarlos for being a withdrawal. Of these, 13 were general who served 45 years in the Army, on the list said Acosta Chaparro.
Officially, for the Department of Defense was a retired general with no ties to military intelligence during the administration of Felipe Calderón. In practice it was not, because for decades had access to information from the Second Section of the General Staff of the secretariat and never stopped having contacts with the political apparatus, including those who were once opponents, and Diego Fernandez de Cevallos , who was kidnapped on May 15.
PAN was the family of which he sought to investigate the plagiarism for his expertise in counterinsurgency.
Three days after the disappearance of political, Acosta was attacked with firearms in Mexico City. Her convalescence lasted nearly half a year.
The officer was not satisfied with the award of retired general received in April 2008 after he was cleared of serious drug charges and crimes against humanity.
Since March this year, a month after his retirement, he undertook a counter suit against the Army and, as in the other trials, courts favored him.
In early October 2007, the Second District Court Administrative Matters of the Federal District was granted an injunction against the withdrawal procedure.
Acosta Chaparro complained to the Department of Defense restitution of assets held for nearly seven years he was in jail, charged with protecting the Juarez cartel. But while litigating against the Department of Defense, became advisor to General Galvan in the Second Section of the Army, ie in the area in charge of military intelligence.
After he was acquitted of drug charges and crimes against humanity, reappeared in the Calderon with a parcel: dealing with members of La Familia Michoacana cartel delivery of "responsible" for the grenade attack in Morelia in 2008 and build bridges between government and various criminal organizations, "including leaders of Los Zetas and the Sinaloa cartel."
Thanks to his friendship with Galvan federal emissary be touched in its capacity as adviser to the Calderón government-in intelligence to negotiate with leaders of major drug trafficking organizations in the country, including Joaquin El ChapoGuzman.
Between 2008 and 2009, the military expert in covert operations met with the leaders of La Familia Michoacana, Los Zetas, the organization of the Beltran Leyva, the Juarez cartel and the Sinaloa cartel.
These movements were detected by the intelligence services of the United States in Mexico. Even the authorities of that country have a video of the meeting of the Calderon administration's emissary in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, with the head of the Zetas, Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano, The Lazca .
After his meeting with La Familia, the second parcel of the retired general was shortly after, in early October of the same 2008. Should look to Los Zetas, when the group founded by elite army deserters was still armed wing of the Gulf Cartel.Before speaking with the head of the Zetas, the Lazca , General Galván told Acosta Chaparro: "I was ordered to remove me because you are already operating."
"He met not only in Matamoros The Lazca , but with Miguel Angel Trevino Morales, the Z 40 . For the day of the meeting, the heads of the criminal organization generally asked the federal government's truce.
"The next meeting was with Acosta Chaparro Vicente Carrillo, head of the Juarez cartel, and leaders of La Linea, the armed group of the criminal organization, to which El Chapo Guzman dispute control of Ciudad Juarez.
"The last administration of the retired general was with El Chapo Guzman, the best known leader of the Sinaloa cartel, "as outlined by journalist Anabel Hernandez in his book The drug lords ( Process 1778). "
Following in 2010 was attacked as he began to investigate the kidnapping of the PAN's Diego Fernández de Cevallos, disappeared from public
Escapite Acosta Chaparro, who was born on January 19, 1942 in Mexico City, decided to enter the Military School in 1959. He had graduated from college French Hill, where he studied high school. In 1962 he graduated and was commissioned as second lieutenant, between 1 January and 28 February at the headquarters of the Presidential Guards. On 16 August of that year went to 35 Infantry Battalion, where he received his rank of lieutenant on 20 November 1965.
In early 1967, between January 9 and February 4, Acosta Chaparro made during military police training and tactics.
And in February 1967 to 15 March 1969 was in the Military Police Battalion.
On November 20, 1968 was promoted to captain second. From March 1969 to July 15, 1970 was attached to the Second Battalion of Military Police under the Defence Staff.
It was on that assignment where he completed courses and special forces paratrooper, from 28 February to 26 June 1970 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, for his course and graduate as a Special Forces Green Beret .
Leaving the Military Police Battalion, became the assistantship Secretary of Defense, General Marcelino Garcia Barragan, until November 30, 1970. He was then sent to the First Battalion of the Parachute Rifle Brigade, where he remained until July 15, 1971. On 20 November of that year, rose to captain first by "selection".
On July 16, 1971, went to the headquarters of the Parachute Rifle Brigade, which was until December 15, 1977. During this period, his service records an entry in the section "War Campaigns and Actions."
Verbal order of the Secretary of National Defense, was seconded to the 27th military zone, where coordination with officials from the PGR, cooperated in the destruction of the guerrilla group of Lucio Cabañas.
This earned him his promotion. On November 20, 1974, by agreement of President Luis Echeverria, was promoted to major of Infantry and awarded. He was leading the guerrilla campaign for the governorship of Figueroa Figueroa.
On March 17, 1981 took possession of the Public Security Department of the State of Veracruz, then while still being commissioned at the plant became the headquarters of the Parachute Rifle Brigade and finally to the plant of Staff Defense, of December 16, 1977 to June 15, 1983.
On November 1, 1977, by agreement of President Jose Lopez Portillo, was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
On November 20, 1983, Lopez Portillo promoted him to colonel. On 16 June of that year had been reinstated as head of the Military Judicial Police, a position he held until January 1984 when he was appointed commander of 68 Infantry Battalion, and in August went to the same charge to 65 Battalion.
In the late eighties rose to the rank of brigadier general. He was to retire in October 2000, when he was arrested on charges of receiving money from drug trafficking.